• Crown Eco Capital Management Environmental Issues Smart Energy Issues Report

    Community, Environmental Design

    http://thecrownmanagement.multiply.com/

    Market Intelligence What are the leading causes of today's energy shortages? What role does energy security play? Are new developments in energy efficiency and energy storage the answer? This report reviews these issues and discusses some of the emerging smart technologies that will address generation capacity shortfalls. Energy security can be defined as the role of affordable, reliable sources of energy in the overall national security of a given country. As demand rises and reserves become costlier, governments will increasingly find energy security to be a challenging goal. Political factors (both domestic and foreign), and environmental concerns provide further complications. Trends to date indicate that if solutions to these problems are found they will likely be a networked basket of diverse, non-centralized "smart tech" approaches. This report frames the state of energy generation today and discusses some of the likely candidate technologies that will form the solution. These include new developments in energy storage and energy efficiency.

    Primary Focus This report provides essential insight into the reasons for power generation shortfalls and detailed intelligence on the technologies that may address them. Major topics covered include: • Energy Security A briefing on the factors that effect a state's capacity to ensure energy security • Power Generation Capacity o Including an analysis of current global capacity and future forecasts • Fuel Reserves o With a look at global supplies of oil, natural gas, coal, biomass, hydrand uranium • Today's Power Grid Information on the composition of the modern grid • Renewable Energy Including the challenges of integrating renewable energy intthe grid • Energy Storage A briefing on the major companies and technologies • Energy Efficiency Products A briefing on the major companies and technologies

    Reasons tPurchase Smart Technology Report • Gain an in-depth understanding of the crucial issues surrounding energy security • Gain insight intcurrent and future global power generation capacity • Access data on global fuel reserves • Understand the composition of the modern power grid • Understand the challenges associated with integrating renewable energy intthe grid • Be briefed on new developments in storage technology and the major companies involved • Be briefed on new developments in energy efficiency products and the major companies involved

    Report Highlights Typically, discussions of energy security focus on reserves of oil and gas. "Peak oil" (or the point at which oil production will begin tdecline) does not appear thave occurred yet, with actual reserves of oil and gas expected tlast another 46 and 59 years respectively based on current rates of consumption. This is in part due tnew discoveries and advancements in technology that makes the extraction of known but challenging reserves cost-effective. However, companies are growing more reluctant texplore and develop new reserves due tvolatile prices and uncertainty over future demand. Geopolitical risk can influence prices as well, with events in unstable regions rippling outwards taffect other nations. Advancements in energy storage technologies could mean better integration of intermittent renewable energy intthe grid. Modern grid systems require predicable and controllable flows of energy that cannot be provided by renewable sources unless the intermittent generation was stored for later use. In addition, storage technologies could allow delay in the production of additional generating capacity, mitigating the need for expensive "peaking" plants tmeet spikes in demand. Energy efficiency, particularly regarding power generation, industrial demand, transportation and the residential or commercial sector can alshelp address these issues. The reuse of waste heat in power generation and industrial facilities, micrhybrid vehicles equipped with stop/start technology, advances in conventional vehicle engines, advances in lighting and re-evaluations of indoor climate control practices are just some of the up-and-coming developments that may be major players in the future.

    Contents 1. Introduction 14 2. Executive Summary . 15 3. Energy Security 16 4. Power generation capacity 18 5. Growing Shortage . 30 Oil 30 Natural Gas 37 Oil and Gas 42 Coal 45 Biomass 46 Hydr 47 Uranium 47 6. The Grid . 48 Power Demand 48 Base load 49 Peak load 49 Intermediate load 49 Renewables 50 Renewable PortfoliStandards . 51 Renewable Issues and the grid 53 Intermittency and variability . 53 Capacity factor 53 Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) 54 Capacity credit 54 Spinning reserve 55 7. Renewables . 56 Integration costs . 57 Balancing supply and demand 59 Import/export electricity . 60 Demand response 61 Back up 62 Storage 62 8. Current state of storage . 63 Investment . 65 Development 67 Economics . 69 9. Storage Technologies . 75 Mechanical Storage 75 Pumped storage 75 Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) 83 Flywheel . 92 Electrochemical storage . 94 Batteries . 95 Lead-acid batteries 98 Advanced lead-acid batteries . 99 Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries 99 Nickel cadmium (NiCd) batteries 103 Nickel-metal hydride (NMH) batteries . 104 Sodium sulphur (NaS) batteries . 104 Sodium Nickel Chloride (NaNiCl) batteries 105 Flow batteries 106 Capacitor . 108 Electric double-layer capacitor system 108 Electromagnetic storage 111 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) 111 Fuel cells . 113 Hydrogen Fuel Cell 114 Electric vehicles 120 Start-stop market 154 Thermal storage 171 Concentrating Solar Power 172 Parabolic Trough 172 Parabolic Dish Systems 173 Central Receiver Systems - Solar Tower 173 Solar Chimney Power Plants 174 Types of storage . 176 Sensible heat storage 176 Concrete . 176 Molten salt . 176 Latent heat storage/phase change materials 178 Inorganic PCMs 179 Organic PCMs . 179 Development of TES for CSP 180 Single-tank Thermocline . 181 Direct molten-salt heat transfer fluid . 181 Hot/Cold storage . 181 10. Energy Efficiency Products 183 Power generation 183 Siemens 183 Alphabet Energy . 184 Echogen Power Systems 184 Electra Therm 185 Ener G Rotors 186 GMZ Energy . 186 Ormat 187 O-Flexx Technologies 188 Phononic Devices 188 Pratt & Whitney 188 Recycled Energy Development (RED) 189 Transphorm 189 Transportation sector 190 Ecomotors 190 Transonic Combustion . 191 XL Hybrids . 192 Residential, industrial and commercial industries 192 Automated monitoring and targeting (AM&T) 193 Boiler controls 193 Building management systems (BMS) 193 Advanced Telemetry . 193 Enistic 193 EnOcean . 194 PassivSystems 195 Powerhouse Dynamics 197 Demand response management (demand management) . 197 Comverge 198 HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) controls 199 BuildingIQ 199 Suntulit . 200 Insulation . 201 Aspen Aerogels 201 Ecovative 201 eTime energy 202 Guardian . 202 Indow Windows 202 Lighting . 202 Azzurr 204 Bridgelux . 204 d.light design 204 Digital Lumens . 206 EcoFit 207 EcoSpark 207 Kateeva 208 Kaneeka 208 Lattice Power 208 Lemnis Lighting 208 Lumiette 209 Lumiotec . 210 Luxim 210 Novalex 210 Osram Sylvania 210 Lighting daylight phasing control . 210 Adura Technologies 211 Encelium . 212 Lumenergi 214 Redwood Systems . 214 Lighting occupancy control . 215 Adura Technologies 215 Encelium . 215 Sensor Switch 216 Remote energy controls 216 Tenrehte Technologies 216 Thinkec . 217 Variable speed devices (VSD) . 217 Voltage power optimisation 217 powerPerfector 218 Vphase . 218 Other 218 THT Heat Transfer Technology 218 Xergy 218 Multinational companies with multiple energy efficiency products . 221 Eaton 221 GE 221 Honeywell 227 Johnsons Controls . 227 Panasonic 229 Philips 230 Wireless Kinetically Powered Energy Devices 231 Wireless Solar Powered Photosensor . 231 Occupancy Sensing Compatibility . 231 Intelligent Transceiver . 231 MesoOptics . 233 Schneider Electric 233 Siemens 233 Energy efficient models of conventional products 234 Data centres 234 Core4 Systems 234 Sentilla . 234 Dryers 235 Hydromatic Technologies 235 Heating and cooling 235 Calmac . 236 Coolerad 236 Climate Well . 239 Hitachi 239 IceCycle 239 Ice Energy 239 MagLev Retrofit Solutions . 240 Windows and glass 241 Sage Electronics . 241 Serious Energy 241 Soladigm . 241 New Energy Technologies . 241

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