Mining History in British Columbia Canada
"British Columbia's mining and mineral exploration industry has a rich history and a promising future. B.C. has been one of the world's major mining regions since the mid-1800s and to this day is a key international player. Encompassing the largest part of the Canadian Cordillera, a mountain belt rich in minerals and coal, B.C. produces and exports a significant amount of copper, gold, silver, lead, zinc, molybdenum, coal and industrial minerals every year. Historically, B.C.'s vast mineral resources have contributed extensively to the province's growth and development. The Hudson's Bay Company first started producing coal on Vancouver Island in the 1840s, and the discovery of gold along the Fraser River in the 1850s sparked a major gold rush, which was ultimately responsible for the settlement of many parts of that region. As B.C.'s population increased, the provincial infrastructure improved, and miners were able to explore more and more of the province's terrain, leading to many new mineral deposit discoveries. Throughout the century following the Fraser River Gold Rush, most mining activities in British Columbia took place underground. But in the early 1960s, the feasibility of open-pit production increased tremendously, and as a result, several huge copper mines opened, including Highland Valley Copper—the largest open-pit operation in all of North America." http://tnxmaverick.com
Mining History in Guinea Africa
The mining sector in Guinea contributes around 25% of the country's income, with bauxite production by far the most important contributor. Guinea has one of the world's largest bauxite reserves, as well as being one of the largest producers, after Australia. Bauxite accounts for 20% of Guinea's GDP and 90% of exports. Gold and diamonds are also major export products. Although Guinea has significant commodity reserves, the country has been poorly explored. However, future potentials exists for gold, base metals, iron ore and diamonds. By 2001, Guinea produced 13,000 kg of gold, including artisanal production, up from 7,835 in 1998; 370,000 carats of diamond, including artisanal production (70%–80% gem quality), down from the average 381,000 recorded in 1998– 2000, following 1997's output of 205,000; and 550,000 tons of hydrate alumina and 550,000 tons of calcined alumina. The country also produced cement, clays, salt, sand and gravel, and stone. Guinea continues to rank among the world's top five producers of bauxite. Guinea's mineral production consists mainly of: alumina, bauxite, cement, diamond, gold, and salt. Undeveloped mineral resources included graphite, iron, limestone, manganese, nickel, and uranium. There is a system in place for encouraging mining investment in Guinea, and apart from Guinea's world-class bauxite deposits, there are important deposits of base and precious metals, and world- class iron-ore deposits that have yet to be developed. The past few years have been characterized by an ongoing program to modernize and restructure the industry and increase production, and talk has now turned to the possibility of constructing aluminum smelters in Guinea to increase the value-added component of bauxite mining. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) foresaw Guinea's economy reaching a real GDP growth of 3% in 2005, primarily as a result of an economic rebound in the mining sector, and the picking up of the trade and services sectors. The rebound in the mining sector was attributed to a continued increase in private investments.
Source: USGS, Mining Journal 2005 http://tnxmaverick.com/history