Burning fossil fuels emits polluting agents into the air. Emission limits are set for operators of combustion facilities, which represent the highest concentrations of pollutants the operator can emit into the air.
Three boilers labeled K1, K2, and K3 are the main equipment in this process. Boiler K1 was installed in 1961, followed by boiler K2 in 1962, and boiler K3 in 1968. The total heat output of the equipment is 192 MW.
Boilers K1, K2, and K3: Boilers K1 and K2 with their heat output of 63.7 MW each and boiler K3 with its output of 64,3 MW have nearly the same parameters. The type G 65 boilers were built by ČKD – Tatra Kolín. The boiler is a, single-drum construction with natural water circulation and direct coal dust injection into the burners. It is equipped with a steam condenser, a two-stage water heater, a convection steam heater, a radiant steam heater, and an air heater. With a maximum output of 65t/h, the steam produced from the three boilers is funneled into a common pipe. Air for combustion is supplied by two ventilators. The main fuel is granulated brown coal and some biomass compounds can be added to the combustion mix (i.e. flax or hemp briquettes and other S2 and S1 biomass products). Light heating oil is used as a stabilizing fuel with pressure-spray burners.
Exhaust is led into a common flue used for all three boilers.
The following are the emission limits for boilers K1, K2, and K3 according to the valid integrated permits:
Emission source Agent
or marker Emission limit
in mg/m3 Applicable
Measured interval Boilers K1, K2 and K3 Fuel: Brown coal, mix of brown coal and biomass SO2 1700 A Constant measurement NOX* 650 A Constant measurement TZL 100 A Constant measurement CO 250 A Constant measurement TOC* 50 B 2 x every calendar year** F* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year Cl* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year Cd* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year Hg* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year Pb* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year As* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year PCDD/PCDF* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year PCB* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year PAH* Not set B 1x3 every calendar year
*NOx – Nitrogen oxides expressed as nitrogen dioxide, TOC – Total organic carbon, Cl – Gaseous inorganic chlorine compounds expressed as hydrogen chloride, F – Gaseous inorganic fluorine compounds expressed as hydrogen fluoride, Cd – Cadmium and its compounds expressed as cadmium, Hg – Mercury and its compounds expressed as mercury, Pb - Lead and its compounds expressed as lead, As – Arsenic and its compounds expressed as arsenic, PCDD/PCDF - Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCB – Polychlorinated biphenyls, PAH – Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ** The interval between measurements is not shorter than 3 months * Not earlier than 6 months from the previous measurement Emissions are constantly monitored by a measuring station in the flue of the three boilers as stipulated by air pollution legislation. The accuracy of measurements must be checked annually by an accredited lab and presented to the state administration. All measured values are processed and evaluated by the Elidis system, which monitors compliance with emission norms, calculates drift, and observes other required values.
Since 2008, Teplárna Planá has been included in the National Plan to Lower Emissions and must meet emission limits, e.g. maximum emission levels in tons per year. All the limits were met in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Emission Source Agent or marker Emission limit in ton/year Deadline to fulfill emission limits Boilers K1, K2, K3 total Dust substancies 80 1. 1. 2008 SO2 2500 1. 1. 2008 NOX 950 1. 1. 2008