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Our mission is to safeguard the ecological integrity of the Hudson River, its tributaries and the watershed of New York City (protecting the city's drinking water supply) by tracking down and stopping polluters. Since 1983, Riverkeeper has investigated and brought to justice more than 300 environmental lawbreakers. Riverkeeper believes in the rights of every citizen to enjoy and defend our nation's water resources.
Riverkeeper's mission is to protect the environmental, recreational and commercial integrity of the Hudson River and its tributaries, and to safeguard New York City's and Westchester County's drinking water supply.
Riverkeeper focuses on three overarching problems facing Hudson River communities:
-Restoration of the Hudson River ecosystem, with particular emphasis on minimizing fish kills and water pollution
-Protection of New York City's drinking water supply; and
-Improving public access to the Hudson River.
We serve a diverse population, from urban dwellers residing in New York City to local fishermen and working class families who live and work in the rural Hudson Valley. With every passing day, the public's concern only increases for rigorous protection of the drinking water supply, for power plant safety, and for preservation of their local environment. Because of Riverkeeper's widespread reputation for taking on polluters, whether large or small, we are increasingly deluged with requests for our services.
Due to this increase in requests for assistance, Riverkeeper has doubled the size of its legal team during the past three years, and hired a staff investigator to respond to citizen pollution reports. Investigations and cases usually start with a simple phone call or e-mail, or someone hailing our patrol boat out on the river with a tip. On the river, our Boat Captain, John Lipscomb may investigate the issue himself or call into the office for support. Then, one of our investigators will be dispatched to the suspected site or to meet with the citizen "watchdog". Once we have sufficient information we can determine if a violation of Clean Water, zoning codes or other issues is occurring. In many cases we will be able to guide the person, or group, that informed us of the violation in what their rights are, and often stop the problem right there and then. When the case is more complicated or grievous, we will decide how we can bring the appropriate legal resources to bear.
In these more complicated cases, we must decide what resources will be needed and how to build the team. Polluters rely on two things: first, that mounting a legal challenge to their activities will cost far more than most individuals can afford; and second, that it often takes a long time to win a case against a polluter. Riverkeeper has shown its ability to overcome both of these obstacles. We have become expert in building strong alliances with key partners and broad-based coalitions that greatly improve our likelihood of success. When we enter a case, Riverkeeper assembles a team of experts in law, engineering, biology, hydrology, economics and energy policy. Combining fund raising to cover expenses, use of pro-bono services and keeping overhead to a minimum, Riverkeeper has proven to be the David who successfully topples many a polluting Goliath.
Often, the alliance we forge includes the invaluable contributions of the Pace Environmental Litigation Clinic.
Riverkeeper combines a unique set of strengths that make such alliances attractive to many groups: a professional reputation, a grassroots base of public support, a powerhouse of attorneys, and strong interlinking partnerships with key organizations expert in law, engineering, biology, hydrology, economics and energy policy.
The Hudson is home to one of the most sophisticated and aggressive environmental communities to protect any resource in the world. Since the early 1960s, a vigilant band of environmental groups, including NRDC, Clearwater, Scenic Hudson, and Riverkeeper, have fought to maintain the River’s biological and aesthetic integrity.
In 1966, Riverkeeper was launched as the Hudson River Fishermen’s Association, a blue-collar coalition of commercial and recreational fishermen, whose first public meeting was at the American Legion Hall in Crotonville, New York. Members of this newly formed organization, many of them former Marines, labored as factory workers, carpenters, lathers or commercial fishermen. Few of these people expected to see Yellowstone or Yosemite or vacation in the Rockies. The Hudson was their environment, their workplace, their property, their park – the centerpiece of their Port Ewen communities. “Our Riviera, our Monte Carlo,” said Ritchie Garrett, the group’s newly elected president. A standing room crowd, hung from the rafters and pressed against the rifle racks, whooped and hollered wildly when Garrett, an ex-Marine and professional grave digger, promised his new followers, “I’ll be the last to let you down.”
When Garrett finished, men and women rose to take the microphone and extol the River. Rivermen from Verplanck and Claverack, some descended from generations of commercial fishermen, spoke of the great runs of striped bass, blue fish, and shad; of giant sturgeon bursting with caviar; of herring and alewives so numerous they turned the tributaries to quicksilver; the succulent blue crab and lucrative eel; or the gefilte fish fishery that peaked during Jewish holidays. Recreational fishermen boasted of the trout, black bass and perch they caught on plugs, the youngsters who would net shrimp, goldfish or herring for bait in the marsh at the mouth of the Croton, and how most of Crotonville congregated on its beaches in the summer months for beer and barbecues.
But each of them fretted about what was happening to the River – the polluters were effectively stealing it from the public. New York City was dumping 1.5 billion gallons per day of raw sewage into the River, the paint from Tarrytown’s GM plant dyed the River a new color each week, the Indian Point power plant was killing millions of fish each day, the National Guard was filling tidal wetlands at Camp Smith, and Penn Central Railroad was discharging oil from a pipe at the Croton Rail Yard. The oil floated up the Croton on the tide, blackening the beaches and making the shad taste of diesel.
The River was dying. Twenty-mile stretches south of Albany and north of New York City were already dead and the Hudson had become the butt of Tonight Show quips. Worst of all, government seemed to be in cahoots with the polluters. The discussion began to turn desperate. Somebody suggested floating a raft of dynamite beneath the Con Edison piers where it would be sucked into the intake. Someone else said Penn Central’s pipe could be plugged with a mattress or ignited with a match.
Then another ex-Marine rose to speak. Bob Boyle was an ornery fly fisherman and outdoor writer for Sports Illustrated. In the course of researching an article about angling in the River two years earlier, he’d stumbled across two little known laws: the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1888 and the Refuse Act of 1899. These statutes forbade pollution of American waters and provided a bounty reward for whoever reported the violation!
After listening to Boyle with escalating excitement, the American Legion crowd agreed to organize themselves to track down and prosecute the Hudson’s polluters one at a time until they were all eliminated. They were as good as their word. Two years later they shut down the Penn Central Pipe and collected $2,000, the first bounty ever awarded under the 19th-century statute. They were soon collecting even larger bounties against Standard Brands, Ciba-Geigy, American Cynamid, Westchester County, Anaconda Wire and Copper and many others. The Fishermen also had joined with Scenic Hudson in a lawsuit to stop Con Edison’s proposal to build a hydroelectric facility on Storm King Mountain. It was, in large part, the discovery of a striped bass spawning ground near the project site that ultimately derailed the deal.
The Fishermen used winnings from these cases to build and launch a Riverkeeper boat, which today patrols the Hudson searching out environmental lawbreakers and bringing them to justice. In 1983, they hired their first full-time Riverkeeper, activist and former commercial fisherman John Cronin. One year later, I joined Riverkeeper as its Chief Prosecuting Attorney.
Since those early days, Riverkeeper has brought hundreds of polluters to justice and forced them to spend hundreds of millions of dollars remediating the Hudson. The Hudson, condemned as an “open sewer” in the 1960s, is today one of the richest water bodies on earth. The River’s miraculous recovery has inspired the creation of “waterkeepers” on more than 150 waterways across the globe.
-Excerpted from introduction to "Looking Back, Forging Ahead", Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. and Alex Matthiessen for the spring 2006 issue of the Riverkeeper newsletter.