The immune system plays vital roles by ensuring disease causing organisms are kept under control. However, some medical conditions are known to cause the immune system to react against the body by fighting the tissues and cells found in the body.. Examples of these disorders include insulin-based diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, and the autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Physicians face numerous challenges while treating these conditions due to the specialized nature of the treatment. For this reason, the research that is on going to establish the contribution of liposomal clodronate in this field has received a lot of support.
Macrophages play a critical role in the functioning of the immune system. They are actively involved in regulating activities of cells that are not non-phagocytic as well as taking part in the various reactions involving the natural immune system. They are responsible for ingesting and digesting macromolecules and microorganisms. The digestion process is facilitated by the lysosomal enzymes in their structure. The lysosomes are produced as artificial vesicles and used for various human applications.
Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia is a condition characterized by the production of antibodies that fight against red blood cells causing them to be destroyed before maturity. These antibodies are classified as immunoglobulin. They attach themselves to these red blood cells and the resulting structure is treated as foreign agents by microphages which are responsible for getting rid of any foreign material and thus are destroyed.
Most physicians use corticosteroids in the treatment of mild cases of autoimmune haemolytic disease. Serious cases of this condition require the complete removal of the entire spleen to stop the production of macrophages. However, splenectomy presents numerous challenges by creating a weakened immune system increasing the vulnerability to infections. The results obtained from tests of liposomal clodronate with animals indicate that this element can cause microphage depletion. This effect is also possible in human beings.
The reduction of the population of microphages is not sufficient to completely eradicate this condition. Microphage reduction slows the rate of destruction of the affected cells creating more time for the doctors to investigate underlying causes of the condition. When these therapeutic agents are used, radical measures such as splenectomy are avoided.
Researchers are also focussing on the possible contribution of these agents in cancer treatment. Microphages are known to stimulate growth of tumours in human beings. They also contribute to the progression of cancerous cases for benign to malignant cases. When these drugs are taken macrophages are reduced and cancer progression slowed down. The results obtained from laboratories where rodent tumour models are used validate these results
The results obtained thus far in experiments involving the use clodronate liposomes to control macrophage activity have been very promising. The fields they are applied in include gene therapy, transplantation and neurological disorders. It is may also used in the treatment of disorders of the bone.
If the research on liposomal clodronate is successful, it will be useful in the treatment of serious conditions affecting individuals today. These therapeutic agents are capable of treating a majority of conditions that are chronic. In addition, it will reduce the cost of treating these conditions.
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